Lucy Hicks Anderson


Lucy Hicks Anderson


Lucy Hicks Anderson was born in 1886 in Waddy, Kentucky (and was assigned male at birth). She entered school and began wearing dresses and calling herself Lucy.

Progressively, physicians advised her mother to raise Lucy as a girl. In the 1880s, most people weren’t discussing gender identity or expression, and certainly didn’t have language like transgender to describe identity or the medical structure to support medical or legal transition.

Lucy married Clarence Hicks in 1920 and moved to California. Their marriage lasted 7 years. While working as a domestic, she saved her money and purchased property, which she operated as a brothel.

In 1929, she married Reuben Anderson, a soldier stationed in Long Island, New York.

At one point in her marriage, a Ventura County district attorney charged her with purjery, when it was discovered she was assigned male at birth. The belief was that she committed purjery when she signed the application for a marriage license.

Lucy challenged the authority of physicians who insisted that she was male. She said “I defy any doctor in the world to prove that I am not a woman. I have lived, dressed, acted just what I am, a woman.”   She was convicted, but placed on probation for 10 years vs. being imprisoned.

Years later, Anderson and her husband were charged again, this time with fraud after she received federal money reserved for military spouses.

She spent the rest of her life in Los Angeles, dying at the age of 68 in 1954.

Read more about Lucy Hicks Anderson at


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